Tarot Decks: Minchiate Pattern
The Minchiate deck originated in Florence in the 15th century and was used to play a trick-taking card game called minchiate. This deck differs from standard tarot decks in a number of respects, including the following:
- it consists of a total of 97 cards (instead of 78), because of a net additional 19 trump cards,
- the net additional 19 trump cards arise out of the disappearance of the Papesse card and the addition of 20 trumps unique to the Minchiate deck,
- thus, there are 41 trumps, rather than 22,
- 40 of the trumps are numbered (I to XL), while the Fool is unnumbered,
- the 20 trumps unique to the Minchiate deck consist of
- additional virtues (Hope, Prudence, Faith, and Charity),
- the four elements (Fire, Water, Earth, and Air), and
- the twelve signs of the zodiac,
- the Emperor and Pope are replaced by the Western Emperor and Eastern Emperor,
- the Empress is replaced by the Grand Duke.
A XVI Century poem, "I Germini" associates each of the forty trumps to a Florentine prostitute. In ancient times, Germini was a synonym for Minchiate.
 Deck list
 Antique specimens
- Minchiate Fiorentine 'Carte Fine', published by Al Mondo circa the first half of the 18th century 
- Minchiate Fiorentine 
 Photoreproduction decks
- Ancient Minchiate Etruria  , published by Lo Scarabeo
- [Minchiate Fiorentine] , published by Il Meneghello 
- Minchiate Francesi , published by del Solleone. The Francesci's trumps differ from those the Etruria and Fiorentine patterns. See Tom Tadfor Little's website.
- Tarocchi Minchiate "Al Leone"
 Modern restorations
- Minchiate Fiorentine (Costante Costantini)  , by Costante Costantini (published by del Solleone)
- Minchiate Tarot (Brian Williams) , by Brian Williams
- Nuove Minchiate Fiorentine - According to Tom Tadfor Little's website, this deck has "small, woodblock-like card designs [and] includes [a] board game", by Costante Costantini (published by del Solleone) - different from the first-listed deck by Costante Costantini